London Arduino

Tonight was my first time along at the London Arduino Meet Up.
The London Arduino Group is of a similar idea to the Raspberry Pi Jam events that I’ve been to
before. It is a group of people who want to share knowledge about the Arduino platform and start to
innovate across other platforms.

This month we had presentations including hobby electronics, internet controlled LED’s and 3D
printing.

Using an Ethernet shield, Christian, put together a set up where he was able to control the status
of an LED in his web browser. This was done on a local network (sorry guys who wanted to take
control of his little light) where he showed two methods of flicking the switch.
The first method he showed off was to use the arduino as a web server and construct the html on it
as well. Then it was a simple matter of connecting to the IP address that was defined on the
arduino and hey-presto it worked.
The second method that he demonstrated was a little more complicated involving node.JS, sockets and other technical jargon that I didn’t catch.

On a similar vein we had Liam demonstrating the use of a TP-Link Wireless N Nano Router (TL-WR702N) to connect an arduino to the internet. He argued that the use of WiFi shields is overly complicated compared to Ethernet shields, as well as being a lot more expensive  So if you are willing to have a slightly bigger package then you can connect the Ethernet shield to the nano router and leave that to sort out the complicated subtleties of wireless connections, allowing you to get on with innovating your wireless solution. Another thought is that a nano router is much more versatile than a WiFi shield because it can be plugged into a computer, games console, Raspberry Pi, or any other device that has an Ethernet socket.

In the realm of Hobby Electronics we had Danny, who was plugging his first ever kit robot. Orionrobots.co.uk is his creation and is where he is selling his first his own starter kit robot. In this kit you will find everything that you need to to construct a small chassis with 4 wheels controlled in pairs (left and right) by a L298n dual H-Bridge controller board which is interfaced to an Arduino Uno R3 (provided in the kit). With a easy fit design, you only need a screwdriver to put this kit together making it perfect for anyone who is; unsure with tools, in need for a robot chassis quickly, or just lazy.

The final talk of the evening was from Mark, on behalf of another London Tech Meet-up group, Future Manufacturing, who have a keen interest in 3D printing. They are really keen to see cross collaboration between our two groups on various projects including potentially the Luma Module Interactive Spaceship. The Luma Module is a KickStarter project where they want to build a spaceship that lights up when people interacts with it. This spaceship will then be shipped (no it won’t fly itself) to Nevada for the Burning Man art Festival at the end of August 2013.

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Starting a VU (Volume Unit) Meter

To keep myself busy at university, I decided to start on a big project. Well big for me anyway.
The end goad being a a VU (Volume Unit) meter, aka a sound level, that can be used either in-line with an audio cable, or used with a microphone.

I am to try to go through this project in a number of research stages, and main 3 test stages.
For the research I want to start with a Light Level Meter. This will just help me to refresh my arduino programming skills, and also just set myself up for when I get hold of a microphone.

Next I will take the same circuit and apply it to audio, using a microphone and using a line-in. In terms of analysing the audio I will first try using a simple analogRead, just the same as the Light Level Meter. I will also look into using FFT (fast Fourier transform) which is used to transform raw audio into a frequency spectrum, which in turn can be outputted to LED displays. This route could end up being very complicated so I will approach that with caution.

The next stage is to research multiplexing and charlieplexing LED’s. This is because I would like the end product to have a LED matrix display,  thus enabling me to potentially display a spectrum of frequency bands. However for the testing I will move back to the Light Level Meter and try to display that data on the LED display.

In terms of the test stages, I will be doing all initial research on breadboards, if all goes to well I will move onto designing an arduino shield, the hope is that this will also work as a Lol (Lots of Lights) Shield. Finally I want to take this to an end product, on its own PCB.

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So enough talking, time to refresh on the very basics.

The Light Level Meter.

This is a very simple circuit, but then that was not the purpose of it.
Each LED was connected to a pin on the arduino, and the central pin of a variable potentiometer is connected to an analogue in pin. I connected an LDR (Light Dependant Resistor) between the variable pot and 5v. The other pin of the variable pot is pulled down to 0v.

Light Level Vs Resistance over a LDR

As the light level decreases, the resistance over the LDR increases, combining this in a basic potential divider circuit means that as it gets darker, the value read in at the analogue pin of the arduino gets higher. This allows me to adjust the LED’s appropriately and also use the variable pot to calibrate the display.

The circuit seen below is the circuit used, with a 330 Ohm resistor in series with every LED as a current limiting resistor.

Light Meter Fritzing Circuit
To program the arduino I used the standard arduino IDE, available from arduino.cc, and I programmed the arduino with the below sketch.

// LED Light Level Meter

int led[10] = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12};  // Array of pin numbers for                  the LED’s
int adjust = 5; // Adjustment Pot
int Light, i;

void setup()
{
for (i=0;i<10; i++) // A for loop which goes from 0 to 9, setting
pinMode(led[i], OUTPUT); // each value in the array as an output
Serial.begin(9600); // Turning on the serial output to troubleshoot
}

void loop()
{
Light = analogRead(adjust); // Reading the analogue value of the LDR
Serial.println(Light); // sending the value to the computer for troubleshooting
Light = Light / 100; //reducing the value down to between 0 and 10
Serial.println(Light); // sending the value to the computer again

if (Light == 0) // checking that all LED’s are off if there is no light
{
for(i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
digitalWrite(led[i], LOW);
}
}

else
{
for(i = 0; i < Light; i++) // Turns on all LED’s between 0 and the light level
{
digitalWrite(led[i], HIGH);
}

for(i = i; i < 10; i++) // turn off the leds above the light level
{
digitalWrite(led[i], LOW);
}
}
delay(100);

}

Prototyping Regulators

Following the mod of the cheap lamp, I had a 12v supply lying around. I figured a good use of it would be to make a supply board for my Raspberry Pi  and other devices I may want to attach to it.

12v AC supply - 2

The supply actually outputs around 13.4 v or so which can be attributed to the tolerances of components used. Regardless of output being greater than 12v, I can still use it with the two different regulators I ordered from Rapid, the L7805cv 5v 1A TO-220 package regulator, and the LM723 adjustable voltage regulator in a 14-DIP package.

7805

 

LM723

Both regulators have a maximum input voltage of 40v, so the 12v supply will be just fine. However the supply outputs an Alternating Current (AC) signal, this can be converted to Direct Current (DC), which is needed for most general electronics, by passing the supply through a device known as a Bridge Rectifier.

The Bridge Rectifier

Moving On . . .

On my breadboard I first built the circuit to output 5v in order to power my Raspberry Pi. 7805Circuit

This is a standard circuit found in the datasheet however C2 has a value of 100µF and C1 is equal to 10µF.

Oopps . . . Please do remember to put the capacitors the right way round, first time I’ve ever done it, but it turns out these capacitors don’t like 12v going in them the wrong way . . .

P1000519

7805 and Rectifier

So after connecting the capacitors in the right polarity, and attaching a 7W 75Ω power resistor across the regulator’s output to load it, I attached the voltmeter to measure the output.

Near Perfect

Using the 100µF and 10µF combination proved successful and outputted a solid 5.028v, however the datasheet recommends values of 0.33µF and 0.1µF. If anyone understands the reasons for the different values please do comment below because I am very curious as to why they both work.
Additionally I would be interested to know why the AC signal of the 12v supply distorts as seen below when the supply is under load.
Odd wave distortion